There are three ways to use Snimpy:
- Interactively through a console.
- As a script interpreter.
- As a regular Python module.
Snimpy can be invoked with either snimpy or python -m snimpy. Without any other arhument, the interactive console is spawned. Otherwise, the given script is executed and the remaining arguments are served as arguments for the script.
When running interactively, you get a classic Python environment. There are two additional objects available:
The load() method that takes a MIB name or a path to a filename. The MIB will be loaded into memory and made available in all SNMP managers:
The M class which is used to instantiate a manager (a SNMP client):
m = M() m = M(host="localhost", community="private", version=2) m = M("localhost", "private", 2) m = M(community="private") m = M(version=3, secname="readonly", authprotocol="MD5", authpassword="authpass", privprotocol="AES", privpassword="privpass")
A manager instance contains all the scalars and the columns in MIB loaded with the load() method. There is no table, node or other entities. For a scalar, getting and setting a value is a simple as:
print(m.sysDescr) m.sysName = "newhostname"
For a column, you get a dictionary-like interface:
for index in m.ifTable: print(repr(m.ifDescr[index])) m.ifAdminStatus = "down"
If you care about efficiency, note that the above snippet will walk the table twice: once to retrieve the index to loop over and once to retrieve the values. This could be avoided with:
for index, value in m.ifDescr.iteritems(): print(repr(value))
Furthermore, you can pass partial index values to iteritems() to limit walked table rows to a specific subset:
for index, value in m.ipNetToMediaPhysAddress.iteritems(10): print(repr(value))
If you don’t need values you can use subscript syntax for this as well:
for index in m.ipNetToMediaPhysAddress: print(repr(index))
Another way to avoid those extra SNMP requests is to enable the caching mechanism which is disabled by default:
import time m = M("localhost", cache=True) print(m.sysUpTime) time.sleep(1) print(m.sysUpTime) time.sleep(1) print(m.sysUpTime) time.sleep(10) print(m.sysUpTime)
You can also specify the number of seconds data should be cached:
m = M("localhost", cache=20)
Also note that iterating over a table require an accessible index. Old MIB usually have accessible indexes. If this is not the case, you’ll have to iterate on a column instead. For example, the first example could be written as:
for index in m.ifDescr: print(repr(m.ifDescr[index]))
If you want to group several write into a single request, you can do it with with keyword:
with M("localhost", "private") as m: m.sysName = "toto" m.ifAdminStatus = "down"
It’s also possible to set a custom timeout and a custom value for the number of retries. For example, to wait 2.5 seconds before timeout occurs and retry 10 times, you can use:
m = M("localhost", timeout=2.5, retries=10)
Snimpy will stop on any error with an exception. This allows you to not check the result at each step. Your script can’t go awry. If this behaviour does not suit you, it is possible to suppress exceptions when querying inexistant objects. Instead of an exception, you’ll get None:
m = M("localhost", none=True)
If for some reason, you need to specify the module you want to use to lookup a node, you can do that using the following syntax:
Snimpy can be run as a script interpreter. There are two ways to do this. The first one is to invoke Snimpy and provide a script name as well as any argument you want to pass to the script:
$ snimpy example-script.py arg1 arg2 $ python -m snimpy example-script.py arg1 arg2
The second one is to use Snimpy as a shebang interpreter. For example, here is a simple script:
#!/usr/bin/env snimpy load("IF-MIB") m = M("localhost") print(m.ifDescr)
The script can be invoked as any shell script.
Inside the script, you can use any valid Python code. You also get the load() method and the M class available, like for the interactive use.
Regular Python module¶
Snimpy can also be imported as a regular Python module:
from snimpy.manager import Manager as M from snimpy.manager import load load("IF-MIB") m = M("localhost") print(m.ifDescr)
About “major SMI errors”¶
If you get an exception like RAPID-CITY contains major SMI errors (check with smilint -s -l1), this means that there are some grave errors in this MIB which may lead to segfaults if the MIB is used as is. Usually, this means that some identifier are unknown. Use smilint -s -l1 YOUR-MIB to see what the problem is and try to solve all problems reported by lines beginning by .
$ smilint -s -l1 rapid_city.mib rapid_city.mib:30:  failed to locate MIB module `IGMP-MIB' rapid_city.mib:32:  failed to locate MIB module `DVMRP-MIB' rapid_city.mib:34:  failed to locate MIB module `IGMP-MIB' rapid_city.mib:27842:  unknown object identifier label `igmpInterfaceIfIndex' rapid_city.mib:27843:  unknown object identifier label `igmpInterfaceQuerier' rapid_city.mib:27876:  unknown object identifier label `dvmrpInterfaceIfIndex' rapid_city.mib:27877:  unknown object identifier label `dvmrpInterfaceOperState' rapid_city.mib:27894:  unknown object identifier label `dvmrpNeighborIfIndex' rapid_city.mib:27895:  unknown object identifier label `dvmrpNeighborAddress' rapid_city.mib:32858:  unknown object identifier label `igmpCacheAddress' rapid_city.mib:32858:  unknown object identifier label `igmpCacheIfIndex'
To solve the problem here, load IGMP-MIB and DVMRP-MIB before loading rapid_city.mib. IGMP-MIB should be pretty easy to find. For DVMRP-MIB, try Google.
Download it and use smistrip to get the MIB. You can check that the problem is solved with this command:
$ smilint -p ../cisco/IGMP-MIB.my -p ./DVMRP-MIB -s -l1 rapid_city.mib
You will get a lot of errors in IGMP-MIB and DVMRP-MIB but no line with : everything should be fine. To load rapid_city.mib, you need to do this:
load("../cisco/IGMP-MIB.my") load("./DVMRP-MIB") load("rapid_city.mib")